Make editors slightly moist


Happiness comes out of contentment, and contentment always comes out of service.
--Harbhajan Singh Yogi

There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires.
--Nelson Mandela

There are no happy endings in history, only crisis points that pass.
--Isaac Asimov

From me to you

My download area is accessible via HTTPS/HTTP at It provides -latest symbolic links, e.g., s-web42-latest.tar.gz.asc. The  git(1) repositories are hosted via HTTPS and HTTP and can be browsed at, and cloned via (You could wait five minutes after reading this before cloning from scratch.) Most projects are mirrored for free under my account at  sdaoden@, at  sdaoden, and some are also available under the nice and clean interface of  repo.or.czthank you! uses the  GNU Mailman mailing-list manager, so users can manage their settings either via web browser by going to, or by sending a mail with only the content help to A receive-only very low-volume announcement list covering all my projects is S-announce at lists dot sdaoden dot eu.

I maintain a port collection for  Crux Linux with a few additional little not available by default.

S - n a i l (later S - m a i l x) — v14.9.23 (“Tits look ahead for winter”), 2021-11-11
Announcement  <>  .tar.xz / .tar.xz.asc  <>  .tar.gz / .tar.gz.asc  <>  Manual
ML s-mailx@ with archive (also at  The Mail Archive, and via gmane.mail.s-mailx.general, thanks!)
Repository browse (clone:, branches [master,stable/{stable,latest},release/{stable,latest},(timeline),(unix-mail),(bsd-Mail),(next)]
Commit logs of [master,stable/*,release/*] are posted to s-mailx-commit@
Repository mirror:      Coverity Scan:  S-nail (project 444)

S-nail provides a simple and friendly environment for sending and receiving mail. It is intended to provide the functionality of the POSIX  mailx(1) ( Wikipedia) command, but is MIME capable and optionally offers extensions for line editing, S/MIME, SMTP and POP3, among others. It divides incoming mail into its constituent messages and allows the user to deal with them in any order. [Image: S-mailx heraldic animal] It offers many COMMANDS and INTERNAL VARIABLES for manipulating messages and sending mail. It provides the user simple editing capabilities to ease the composition of outgoing messages, as well as providing the ability to define and send to names which address groups of users, and increasingly powerful and reliable non-interactive scripting capabilities.

Packages or recipes exist, sometimes it is shipped as a core package, and sometimes under names like nail, mail, or mailx. People care for  archlinux,  Crux,  Debian and deriviates,  Fedora,  FreeBSD,  KaOS, macOS via  Homebrew,  NetBSD,  OpenBSD (cheesy maintainer),  OSUKISS,  Slackware, as well as  The Void (Linux) distribution. At various levels of actuality are  Alpine Linux,  Funtoo,  Gentoo, macOS via  MacPorts, as well as Gavin, the man from the green island  AUR (s-nail-git). I am happy and prowd that  “Fossies” — the Fresh Open Source Software Archive  included S-nail in its software collection that sails so close to the wind!

There are no prerequisites but a normal Unix environment (make(1), an ISO C89 C compiler etc.) and it is also possible to work directly with a repository checkout. The repository layout has been extended after release v14.8.10, and is documented in the projects README file. Users which are only interested in stable changes, but which do not want to wait for releases to gain, e.g., bugfix commits, should probably track only the [stable/stable] branch. Users which also accept backward incompatible changes can track [master], it will eventually be used to create new major or minor releases. To clone the entire repository and locally select what you want, do

 $ git clone
 $ cd s-nail
 $ git checkout master
 $ make CONFIG=MAXIMAL tangerine

It is possible to save a quite a bit of disk space. With a newer  git(1) you can say

 $ git clone --single-branch -b stable/stable \

But even otherwise you can be selective:

 $ mkdir s-nail.git
 $ cd s-nail.git
 $ git init
 $ git remote add origin -t stable/stable -t 'release/*' -t timeline \
 $ git fetch -v
m d o c m x — v2, 2015-05-12; v2.1, 2021-05-24
Code is part of S-roff  <>  Manual
 groff(1) enhancement request:
patches (against "latest" git repository content): less-osc8-search.patch, grotty-osc8.patch

The mdoc(7) manual semantic markup language does not support any kind of anchoring: whereas you can exactly state what x is whenever you refer to it – variable, function etc. –, you have no option to define the exact place where x is itself defined, or whether it is at all defined in a given manual page.

Also, whereas mdoc(7) does support differentiation in between anchors and references for headlines (.Sh / .Ss and .Sx, respectively), referencing a headline is only of notational interest, the reference is in no way “active”, never.

mdocmx(7) extends mdoc(7) by adding all the missing functionality and more, including (output device dependent) referencable external manuals, with a single new multiplexer command: .Mx. Users can truly enable the extension macro by setting the environment variable MDOCMX_ENABLE to a non-empty value (non-empty is a troff(1) requirement).

Non-multipass troff(1) implementations are not capable to generate forward references to anchors not yet defined, therefore there is a new preprocessor mdocmx(1), implemented in portable sh(1) and awk(1). But a nice property of mdocmx(7) is that it “knows” its state, so that manuals can be distributed in a preprocessed state.

With a OSC 8 enabled  groff(1) (see enhancement request), and a  less(1) version 566 or later, you would get nice OSC 8 sequences in the terminal, while viewing manual pages. With the OSC 8 search patch included (see enhancement request),  less(1) can even provide fully interactive references.

 mdoc() { "${1}" |
   MDOCMX_ENABLE=1 groff -Tutf8 -mdoc ${MDOCMXFLAGS--dmx-toc-force=tree} |

How does it work?

For output devices like HTML or PDF mdocmx(7) will use the corresponding and well-known support troff(1) macro packages to generate anchor and reference information.

For terminal (typewriter-like) devices a new troff(1) \X'tty: osc8' command is generated that is ignored by all devices which do not support it. With a small code extension grotty(1) can turn X'tty: osc8 commands into the OSC 8 escape sequences that are understood by more and more terminals and console programs, like  less(1) (since version 566). With the OSC 8 search patch included (see enhancement request),  less(1) can even provide fully interactive references.

Note that due to the way that mdoc(7) is implemented section and subsection headers may not contain macro recursions. Please see the referenced  groff(1) enhancement request for more on this; the next mdocmx(7) iteration will generate warnings for such use cases (at least in the preprocess); just as stated in the enhancement request mdoc(7) itself has to be rewritten in order to overcome this restriction.

S - W e b 4 2 — v0.9.3, 2020-05-16
.tar.gz.asc / .tar.gz  <>  Manual
Repository browse (clone:, branch [master]

One more option to manage your website. A camel approach to website building.  vim(1) and it actually generated what you are looking at.

S - S y m O b j — v0.8.2, 2016-10-24
.tar.gz.asc / .tar.gz (via  CPAN)  <>  Manual
Repository browse (clone:, branch [master]

Throw an eye on my Symbol table and Object  perl(1) module, it offers a somewhat easy symbol table and object creation/management. It is also available in the  Comprehensive Perl Archive Network.

I am using  perl(1) since 1997 in many projects and for a lot of purposes. In all that time i have not found a single bug! Hoooray and thanks,  perl(1) porters!

S - T o o l b o x
S-cdda — v0.8.5, 2021-01-28 — .tar.gz.asc / .tar.gz  <>  Manual
S-cdda-to-db — v0.8.0, 2021-06-18 — .tar.gz.asc / .tar.gz  <>  Manual
pam_xdg — v0.8.0, 2021-09-01 — .tar.gz.asc / .tar.gz  <>  Manual
Repository browse (clone:, branch [master]

The README as of 2021-11-11:

A repo of some small tools

Somewhat useful:
   Find an executable command within a POSIX shell.
   which(1) is not standardized, and command(1) -v may return non-executable,
   so here is how it is possible to really find a usable executable file.
   Thanks to Robert Elz (kre).
   To ease maintaining of topic branches i use a linear history, so
   that i can use ``$ git rebase -i`` for fixups and squashes, without
   having to worry about recreation of topic branches.  Instead i tag
   commit messages, and use this script to create the topics once i am
   finished.  Read the --help output for more, and make use of verbosity
   when you use it first.

   2013-09-13: newer git(1) reverse ``rev-parse`` output: adjusted.
   Download NNTP articles from and, incrementally, and
   store them in (append them to) a local MBOX.
   Read and adjust the script header for documentation and configuration.

pam_xdg.c (manual in pam_xdg.8; pam_xdg.makefile) v0.8.0:
   XDG Base Directories support via PAM: creation of $XDG_RUNTIME_DIRs,
   injection of environment variables into sessions.  libpam and OpenPAM.
   2021-07-29: port to OpenPAM (BSD).  (Jan Beich)
   2021-08-01: (Re)Added (now optional) session handling.
   2021-08-31: Review; do not fail when pam_putenv() fails, even without
               session handling.  Make a ball release v0.8.0 (Jan Beich)!
   2021-09-16: Allow non-XDG-standard paths via make options (Jan Beich)
   Round trip quote strings in POSIX (and elder) shell(s).
   Thanks to Robert Elz (kre).

   2019-05-27: ensure outer driver(s) do not leak variabes. (Steven Penny)

s-cdda.c (manual in s-cdda.1; s-cdda.makefile) v0.8.5:
   Access digital audio CDs (TOC, MCN, ISRC, CD-TEXT, audio tracks).
   Developed in 2020 on then current operating-systems and hardware.
   Not tested with CD-Extra etc (only proofed logically.  Linux and *BSD. (manual in s-cdda-to-db.1; s-cdda-to-db.makefile) v0.8.0:
   Queries the content and data of audio CDs through s-cdda(1), collects
   informations, like the name of the artist, album, song titles, etc., of
   desired audio tracks, if possible correlates data with a web query
   against MusicBrainz, and integrates encoded variants of the audio tracks
   as well as a human readable database file in a per-CD directory under
   a directory tree.
   Multiple audio encoding formats are supported, and as much of the
   collected information as possible is also stored in the encoded files
   itself.  The user will be asked to edit collected informations, and will
   be given documentation for the rather sophisticated (classical music
   aware) database layout while doing so.
   2021-05-17: fix: $MUSIC_DB now always needed, even in read-only mode.
               Talk about $LC_ALL and $PERL5OPT in the manual.
               MusicBrainz has HTTPS-query problems, henceforth require
               new --music-brainz-tls; add --music-brainz to avoid interactive
               prompt, v0.7.0.
   2021-06-18: use POSIX::setlocale() instead of relying on PERL5OPT=-C.
               The latter roots in old habits originating in perl(1) evolution
               problems  Y2K2-3 (5.8.0 and 5.8.1).   Time to move on: v0.8.0.

You likely do not wanna know:

   Offers some automatized operations on revision control repositories,
   like updating, (fast-forward) merging, garbage-collecting.
   My private backup script.  Simple (uses tar(1)), but does some stuff
   which i need for my work flow (backups data which is in local repo
   clones but not yet pushed to their "real" counterparts).  Needs perl(1).
   P.S.: it is fantastic to have a filesystem with snapshots thats can be
   "send" in addition!
   2016-08-27: FIX faulty xarg/tar -c invocations. (Ralph Corderoy)
   Simple script to deal with BTRFS snapshots.
   2021-05-29: try config via $BTRFS_SNAPSHOT first; for receive-balls,
               let a filename of = mean: trim snapshots.
   2021-07-03: drop unused/broken "setmounts", add "setvols" command.

   FreeBSD 5.3 x86 prog to open/close /dev/cdrom tray.  May work on
   newer ones, but have not tried it in a while.  It had 416 object
   file bytes when everything was placed in ``.text`` (no .EH frames
   back then).

   Linux: for my use cases i find it annoying that "entropy_avail" is not
   incremented when i restore the saved random seed that machines have
   collected so hard.  This little program touches this count also.
   2019-01-21: Small fixes, and take care for EAGAIN. (Bernd Petrovitsch)
   2019-01-24: use syslog(3) instead; also test EBUSY. (Bernd Petrovitsch)
   "Adaptive", more generic, and much more easily adaptable successor of  For now with simulator and MacBook Air model support.
   See the script header for more.

   Creates a shell archive similar to uushar as below, except that the
   archive (1) consists only of executable file members, and (2) will
   be itself executable.  Run the generated shell archive script to invoke
   any of its programs.  Upon first invocation the wrapper creates a
   hidden directory in $TMPDIR to unpack its members.
   Without arguments it shows its contents and the creation date.
   Simply execute it, it guides through the archive creation process.
   A _real_ periodic for NetBSD, FreeBSD, DragonFly BSD and OpenBSD that
   ensures that the daily/weekly/monthly maintenance stuff is executed,
   even if your laptop is running only one hour a day.  Invoke this once
   per hour in the roots crontab and disable the usual periodic stuff of
   your system instead.  Note it does not deal with timezone and DST
   (daylight saving time) switches, but instead only checks the day of
   the year that is reported by date(1).  E.g., on my FreeBSD 10.0 box::

      # do daily/weekly/monthly maintenance
      15  * * * * root /usr/bin/nice -n 15 /usr/libexec/
      #1  3 * * * root periodic daily
      #15 4 * * 6 root periodic weekly
      #30 5 1 * * root periodic monthly

uushar (manual in uushar.1):
   Writes a sh(1) shell script to standard output that recreates the file
   hierarchy specified by the command line operands.  Directories will be
   recreated and must be specified before the files they contain.
   Compared to the well-known shar(1) program, uushar(1) adds optional
   compression and an uuencode(1)/uudecode(1) binary safe layer::

      $ uushar [-(Z|z|J|j)] file ...

   It is easy to insert trojan horses into uushar files.  It is thus
   strongly recommended that all shell archive files be examined before
   running them through sh(1).  Archives produced using this
   implementation of uushar may be easily examined with the command::

      $ grep '^[^X#]' shar.file
   Control a ZTE modem (MF79 and many others according to web search)
   from the command line.  Needs curl(1) and OpenSSL(1).

# s-it-mode
S - r o f f — working on it
Repository browse (clone:, release/{stable,latest},(next)]
Commit logs of [master,stable/*,release/*] s-roff-commit@
Repository mirror:

S-roff is a text processor that formats text. It accepts lines of text interspersed with lines of format control information and formats the text into a printable, paginated document having a user-designed style. S-roff offers unusual freedom in document styling: arbitrary style headers and footers; arbitrary style footnotes; multiple automatic sequence numbering for paragraphs, sections, etc; multiple column output; dynamic font and point-size control; arbitrary horizontal and vertical local motions at any point; and a family of automatic overstriking, bracket construction, and line-drawing functions.

S-roff is a fork of  groff(1), stripped-down to not include any related facility, the output devices grolj4 and grolbp as well as most contributed packages. The fork happened on the last commit that is still GPL2 licensed (1.19.2-574-gecbf4f1), but almost all changes up to and including v1.22.3 are included, as well as further bug reports.

The plan is to make it UTF-8 clean all through the toolchain, to make it more user friendly, e.g., by adding automatic detection of required preprocessors. Nonetheless keeping backward compatibility and accessibility of individual subcomponents, like nroff, troff and all the preprocessors. [Image: S-roff logo -- magnolia night] I would like to see the manual all in manual pages (mdoc). I really would like to have builtin support for TTF/OTF fonts. All of this is mid– to long–term.

First i will completely rework the build system and adapt [Image: It still takes a while] this codebase to not need any autotool, but only the shell and make, just the same easy way as is used for S-nail, then perform a lot of rather invisible but desired code overhauling, like implementing consistent argument parsing etc. I hope this step can be finished by end of 2022, followed by an early initial release.

From you to me

I love C,  perl(1) and dig plain old sh(1) and awk(1) more and more. I would love C++ (again) if it would be a plain C with classes; maybe not even automatic ctors and dtors. (If i really would go for learning a new language i think i would most likely have a go with  Nim or  Julia. I will however have to and look forward to dig into  Lua.) I have discovered  mksh(1) and used it on all my real-work boxes for almost a decade, but in 2021 i switched back to  bash everywhere after finding myself in a buggy dead end situation. Whereas  Dropbear SSH is sometimes used for outlined SSH cases, almost all of SSH is driven by the omnipresent  OpenSSH. Since about year 2000 i am a fan (though not a sophisticated user) of  vim(1), it gave up in an endless loop twice. I am thankful for being able to use  git(1) for version control today, after a lot of distress with other VCSs.

When on X(1) i was used to run the fantastic  ahwm(1) window manager from about 2002/3 to November 2018, may Alex Hioreanu himself refer to it as historical or not; but ... i am now using  cwm(1). Because i mostly stay within the  tmux(1) terminal multiplexer, to which i have switched (back) after about six years of using  screen(1), i am satisfied with the minimalistic  st(1) terminal —  rxvt-unicode and its server mode served me very well before that.  lynx(1) for browsing if text based browsing is possible, thus decreasingly often, which i dislike, and  Firefox (pre-compiled) otherwise. Mail messages are being passed through  bogofilter for Bayesian filtering, i have written and use a  LMDB backend for and with it. I ended up using solely  groff(1) for document preparation, viewing PDFs with  mupdf(1); i do use from the same source.

It would also not work without enscript, less, curl, openssl, all the compression tools, the filesystems and their tools, dhcpcd, wpa_supplicant, and all the other network tools, multimedia tools like ffmpeg, vorbis-tools, ogg123, sox, faad2, faac, of course xorg, and all the free compilers out there, gcc, clang, pcc and tinyc, and tools surrounding object files.

I am very thankful for being able to use virtual machines via  QEMU: it is so handy to have a bunch of operating systems at hand for immediate testing, just as necessary! I have used  FreeBSD for about ten years, and again since 2015. It and  Crux- Linux with nice SysV init are my development boxes. I am also using  archlinux,  NetBSD,  OpenBSD and  The Void (Linux) distribution, and there are VMs with other systems, like  DragonFly. I am in favour of BSD, it is a complete, self-contained environment, with good and up-to-date documentation. Just like  Crux- Linux.

While looking around for  Unicode aware software i have been pointed to the  Plan9 from Bell Labs operating system, which has been unknown to me before, and its  9atom and  9front extenders, which unfortunately have all died in the meantime, except for the latter; sometimes i wish i would have known Plan9 15 years earlier, and that it would have been licensed under BSD copyright back then, who knows how that relationship would have ended.

This server

The server is driven by the  Alpine Linux operating system (after a month of a quick-and-dirty (via inetd) setup  FreeBSD system) with  tc(8) (iproute2) traffic shaping in combination with an  iptables(8) firewall.  Dnsmasq caches DNS queries.  OpenSSH handles SSH,  OpenNTPD synchronizes the system clock.  Postfix manages SMTP and provides mailing lists via  GNU Mailman. Web pages are served by the  lighttpd web server and gitweb makes the  git(1) repositories accessible via HTTPS/HTTP for browsing purposes. Most services of are secured with a free certificate obtained from  Let's Encrypt, which is managed by cron job via  dehydrated. The server is a VM hosted by  Portunity with the use of green energy.

Copyright (c) 1997 - 2021, Steffen Nurpmeso <>
@(#)code.html-w42 1.372 2021-11-11T22:34:03+0000